Washington, August 13 : For the majority of older women with early-stage breast cancer, radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery may help prevent the need for a later mastectomy, say researchers.
The findings from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center are contrary to current national treatment guidelines, which recommend that older women with early stage, estrogen-positive disease should be treated with lumpectomy followed by estrogen blocker therapy alone -- and forgo radiation therapy post-surgery.
Washington, August 13 : Researchers have identified 38 new genetic regions that are associated with glucose and insulin levels in the blood, using a technology that is 100 times more powerful than previous techniques used to follow-up on genome-wide association results.
This brings the total number of genetic regions associated with glucose and insulin levels to 53, over half of which are associated with type 2 diabetes.
The powerful technology, Metabochip, was designed as a cost-effective way to find and map genomic regions for a range of cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics on a large scale.
Washington, August 13 : Persistent and loud snoring in young children may lead to behaviour problems, including hyperactivity, depression and inattention, according to a new study.
So, Dean Beebe, PhD, director of the neuropsychology program at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and lead author of the study, encourage parents to talk to their child's doctor about loud snoring, especially if it happens a lot and persists over time.
"The strongest predictors of persistent snoring were lower socioeconomic status and the absence or shorter duration of breastfeeding," said Dr. Beebe.
Washington, August 11 : The neon tape, called Kinesio, swathing sprinters and swimmers alike at this year's Olympics is taking London by storm.
"It's all over the Olympics," ABC News quoted Dr. Jennifer Solomon of New York City's Hospital for Special Surgery as saying.
"Athletes love it," she said.
Developed by a Japanese chiropractor, Kinesio claims to cut pain and boost performance, and judging by its prominence at this year's Games, athletes think it works.
"If you ask them, they say it does," Solomon, team physician for the U. S. Tennis Association, said.
Washington, August 11 : Researchers have breathed new life into a forgotten technique and so succeeded in detecting resistant tuberculosis in circumstances where so far this was hardly feasible.
Tuberculosis bacilli that have become resistant against our major antibiotics are a serious threat to world health.
If we do not take efficient and fast action, `multiresistant tuberculosis' may become a worldwide epidemic, wiping out all medical achievements of the last decades.
Checking smears under the microscope still is the recommended technique for TB screening, but it cannot differentiate between living and dead bacilli.
Washington, August 11 : Scientists have discovered how a defective gene causes brain changes that lead to the atypical social behaviour characteristic of autism.
The research offers a potential target for drugs to treat the condition.
Earlier research already has shown that the gene is defective in children with autism, but its effect on neurons in the brain was not known. The new studies in mice show that abnormal action of just this one gene disrupted energy use in neurons.
The harmful changes were coupled with antisocial and prolonged repetitive behaviour -- traits found in autism.
Washington, August 11 : Researchers may have found a promising stem cell therapy for preventing osteoarthritis after a joint injury.
Injuring a joint greatly raises the odds of getting a form of osteoarthritis called post-traumatic arthritis, or PTA. There are no therapies yet that modify or slow the progression of arthritis after injury.
Researchers at Duke University Health System have found a very promising therapeutic approach to PTA using a type of stem cell, called mesenchymal stem cells
(MSCs), in mice with fractures that typically would lead to them developing arthritis.
Washington, August 11 : A new observational study has found more evidence of an association between daily aspirin use and modestly lower cancer mortality, but suggests any reduction may be smaller than that observed in a recent analysis.
The study provides additional support for a potential benefit of daily aspirin use for cancer mortality, but the authors say important questions remain about the size of the potential benefit.
Washington, August 10 : Living in the moment is impossible for a healthy person, according to neuroscientists who have identified a brain area responsible for using past decisions and outcomes to guide future behaviour.
The study conducted at the University of Pittsburgh is the first of its kind to analyze signals associated with metacognition-a person's ability to monitor and control cognition
(a term cleverly described by researchers as "thinking about thinking.")
Washington, Aug 10 - A blood test is in the offing to detect Alzheimer's disease, researchers at Emory University say.
"Reliability and failure to replicate initial results have been the biggest challenge in this field. We demonstrate here that it is possible to show consistent findings," says William Hu, assistant professor of neurology at Emory University School of Medicine, who led the study.
Hu and collaborators at the University of Pennsylvania and Washington University, St. Louis, measured the levels of 190 proteins in the blood of 600 study participants at those institutions, the journal Neurology reports.
Washington, August 9 : Violations of the alcohol industry’s advertising standards are most common in magazines with sizable youth readerships, according to a new study from the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth
(CAMY) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The study is the first to measure the relationship of problematic content to youth exposure, and the first to examine risky behaviours depicted in alcohol advertising in the past decade.
Washington, August 9 : Results of a new study has indicated a relatively high prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in new mothers.
Prof. Rael Strous of Tel Aviv University has found that approximately one third of all post-partum women exhibit some symptoms of PTSD, and a smaller percentage develop full-blown PTSD following the ordeal of labor.
Natural birth is a major cause of post-traumatic stress, according to the study.
Washington, Aug 9 - The formation in the air of sulphuric acid, which smells like rotten eggs, is significantly impacting our climate and health, says a study.
The study led by Roy "Lee" Mauldin III, research associate at the University of Colorado-Boulder's atmospheric and oceanic sciences department, charts a previously unknown chemical pathway for the formation of sulphuric acid, which can trigger both increased acid rain and cloud formation as well as harmful respiratory effects on humans.
Washington, August 9 : Manipulating a group of hormone-producing cells in the brain can control blood sugar levels in the body, a new study has revealed.
This has dramatic potential for research into weight-loss drugs and diabetes treatment.
The new study examines how fruit flies (Drosophila) react when confronted with a decreased diet.
Washington, August 9 : MIT researchers have found that a protein that slows ageing in mice and other animals also protects against the ravages of a high-fat diet, including diabetes.
More than a decade ago, MIT biology professor Leonard Guarente discovered SIRT1's longevity-boosting properties and has since explored its role in many different body tissues.
In his latest study, he looked at what happens when the SIRT1 protein is missing from adipose cells, which make up body fat.
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